假設語氣詳解


Unit 13. 假設語氣 首頁 / 文法句型精華 / 單元式整理 / Unit 13. 假設語氣

   
 
13.1 if-假設語氣
   
 
1. 針對現在事件的假設語氣 (現在假設法) (即非現在事實--與現在事實相反)
  句型: If ...were/V-p.t. ..., ...would/might/could/should + 原形V.... (較單純動詞變化)
  例1. If I were you, I would be satisfied.  (In fact, I am not you.)
例2. If I had money on me, I would take this expensive one. 
  (In fact, I don't have money with me, so I can't take this expensive one.)
   
2. 針對過去事件的假設語氣 (過去假設法) (即非過去事實--與過去事實相反)
  句型: If ...had + P.P..., ...would/might/could/should + have + V-p.p. .... (完成式動詞變化)
  例:If I had been with them, the children wouldn't have been injured.
   
  時間軸圖示 ( 藍色 直線 為正常時式, 粉紅 斜線 為假設語氣)
 
   
3. 表對未來之推測、假設 (未來假設法)
 
A) should/happen to表“萬一/如果碰巧”:
  句型:If ...should/happen to +原形V..., ...will(would)/may(might)/can(could)/should +原形V
  例:If there should be strikes, the company will/would lay off the strikers.
   
B) were to 表“如果/假使”→ are/is to的假設語氣用法:
  句型:If ...were to..., ...would/should/might/could+ 原形V… (如果會...)
  例:That's a good idea, but suppose mom were to find out.
   
  註:if-條件句「如果,假如」-- 表事件之條件可能性。(動詞變化:直說法--時式正常變化
  例1. If it rains heavily, the river nearby floods/will blood. (如果大雨,河流就淹水。)→ 條件,結果。
  例2. If she told you that, she was lying. (果真她這麼告訴你,她就是在撒謊。)→ 過去可能的事實
   
下載 Unit 13.1 同步演練
   
   
13.2 其它「假設語氣」用法綜合整理
   
 
1. wish + S + 假設語氣V… (但願,希望)  (87推甄)
  * 對現在假設—例:I wish I lived near my school. (但願我住在學校附近。)
* 對過去假設—例:I wish I had not said that. (但願我沒說過那句話。)
   
2. without/but for + 名詞,  S + 假設語氣V… (要不是,若無)
  * 對現在假設—例:Without you, my life would be dull. (如果沒有你,我的生活就很悶。)
* 對過去假設—例:But for your help, I wouldn't have found this job. (要不是 ~,我找不到 ~)
   
3. as if  + S + 假設語氣V… (彷彿,好像)  
  * 對現在假設—例:The young man walks as if he were an old man. (這年輕人走路像個老頭。)
* 對過去假設—例:The white-faced boy looks as if he had seen a ghost. (仿彿看見鬼了)
  註:直說法—例:He looks as if he hasn't slept all night. (他看起來整晚沒睡—他目前的確很疲倦。)
  其它可有假設語氣與直說法之用詞—1) even if ~ (即使~)  2) what if ~ (如果 ~ 那怎麼辦?)
   
4. If only + S + 假設語氣V… (真希望,但願)           註: only if (唯有如果/當...)
  * 對現在假設—例:If only I had a nice job. (但願我目前有份好工作。)
* 對過去假設—例:If only I hadn't bought this. (我真是希望沒買這個東西。)
   
5. It is (high/about) time (that) + S + 假設語氣V…  (該是做 ~ 事的時候了)
  * 對現在提出虛擬—例:It's time that you had a haircut. (你該理髮了。)
   
6. lest + S + (should) + 原形V…  (以防/免 ~ )
  * 對未來的臆測—例:Remind me later lest I (should) forget. (稍後提醒我,以免我忘記。)
   
   
   
13.3 「直說法」綜合整理 (非假設語氣,表條件)
   
 
1.
supposing/suppose (that) 
on (the) condition that 
in the event that
註:in the event of + n.
+ S + V …  (假如 = if)
   
  例:I will take this on the condition that you reduce its price. (如果你降價,我就買這件。)
   
2. given that + 子句  (如果考慮到)  註:given + 名詞 --(90學測)
  例:Given that he is new here, I won't be hard on him. (考量到他剛來,我不會嚴厲對待他。)
   
3. in case + 子句 (句首--如果;句中--以防)  註:in case of + n.
  例:Take an umbrella in case it rains/should rain. (帶把傘去,以防下雨。)
   
4. for fear that + 子句… (以免/避免 ~,擔心 ~ )  註:for fear of + n.
  例:I daren't go there for fear that the dog will bark at me. (我不敢去那兒,擔心狗對我吠。)
   
 
下載 Unit 13.2—13.3 同步演練

source:

http://203.72.63.150/p21-13.htm

more

http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/english-baseball/article?mid=466

http://motherliu.blogspot.com/2010/09/f.html

 

本篇訊息引用自<英語大師部落格>

http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/masterenglish-englishmaster/article?mid=10211&next=10168&l=f&fid=9

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